35. Emerging Penetrating Neural Electrodes: In Pursuit of Large Scale and Longevity
Luan, L., Yin, R., Zhu, H., Xie, C., Emerging Penetrating Neural Electrodes: In Pursuit of Large Scale and Longevity.
Penetrating neural electrodes provide a powerful approach to decipher brain circuitry by allowing for time-resolved electrical detections of individual action potentials. This unique capability has contributed tremendously to basic and translational neuroscience, enabling both fundamental understandings of brain functions and applications of human prosthetic devices that restore crucial sensations and movements. However, conventional approaches are limited by the scarce number of available sensing channels and compromised efficacy over long-term implantations. Recording longevity and scalability have become the most sought-after improvements in emerging technologies. In this review, we discuss the technological advances in the past 5–10 years that have enabled larger-scale, more detailed, and longer-lasting recordings of neural circuits at work than ever before. We present snapshots of the latest advances in penetration electrode technology, showcase their applications in animal models and humans, and outline the underlying design principles and considerations to fuel future technological development.